What is OJT Training? Trends, advantages, disadvantages, and effective implementation methods
On-the-job training (OJT) is one of the methods used in corporate human resources training, with a particular emphasis on practical application. It is well-known as a method suitable for training new employees to be ready-to-work professionals.
This article explains the basics of OJT training, and then provides information on the advantages and disadvantages that you should know, as well as key points for effective implementation.
Please refer to this page for those in charge of human resources departments who are considering the introduction of OJT training.
What is OJT training?
First, let's check out the basics of OJT training: what it means, how it differs from similar training methods, and even the flow of OJT training in recent years.
Meaning of OJT training
What is OJT training?It is an educational method that provides guidance while practicing work in the workplace.On the Job Training (OJT) On the Job Training" is short for on-the-job training. In many workplaces, it is commonly used as a training method primarily for new and younger employees.
Difference between OJT training and Off-JT training
Off-JT training is an educational method that provides instruction away from the workplace. Off-JT is an acronym for "Off The Job Training.
The difference between on-the-job training and off-the-job training is whether the training is conducted in parallel with the work. Off-JT training, on the other hand, is conducted away from work, with time and space set aside for training.
There are several options for conducting off-JT training. Typical examples include having a person in charge of the human resources department create the training program and instructor, or using a training service provided by a specialized company. Training content can be enhanced by outsourcing content creation or requesting outside instructors.
Purpose and importance of OJT training
The main purpose of on-the-job training is to make new hires become immediately competitive. It is important to use OJT training appropriately in conjunction with Off-JT training.
The results of on-the-job training are likely to be directly related to the new employee's subsequent work efficiency and productivity. It is considered an efficient and effective educational method because it provides practical work experience during the training phase.
Trends in OJT training in recent years
Remote on-the-job training
Traditionally, on-the-job training has been conducted face-to-face onsite. In recent years, training has increasingly been conducted online using web conferencing systems and chat tools. When conducted remotely, everything from instruction during training to work management is done online.
One of the reasons why remote on-the-job training is attracting attention is the spread of telework due to the impact of the spread of the new coronavirus infection. In response to changes in the work environment, remote on-the-job training is gradually being implemented.
OJD is an educational method of developing employee skills. OJD is short for "On the Job Development.
OJD is characterized by having employees acquire the skills they will need for their future work in a retrospective manner; while OJT aims to acquire the skills necessary for their current work, OJD takes a longer-term perspective and aims to improve employees' skills. In recent years, many companies have introduced OJD to support the careers of their employees against the backdrop of a shortage of human resources.Back to Table of Contents
Advantages and benefits of OJT training
OJT training is expected to bring benefits to the instructor, the teacher, and the company. In this section, we will discuss the benefits of OJT training for each role, and then introduce the effects of introducing OJT training.
Advantages and benefits for those who teach and introduce the system
Easy early resolution of business concerns and questions
The advantage of on-the-job training is that you are in close proximity to your instructor, making it easier to ask questions and discuss work-related issues. You can get on-the-spot advice on current concerns and worries, which can lead to early resolution of issues. When you receive guidance on the job, it is easier to make specific improvements in the way you approach and carry out your work.
Easy to have the content adjusted to your own characteristics
Generally, on-the-job training is conducted in small groups, so you can expect individualized instruction in a manner appropriate to each person's characteristics. Another advantage is that unlike group instruction, where all employees are taught at the same time, it is easier to have the instructional method adjusted according to the individual's level of understanding and ability. You will receive detailed feedback and evaluation, which will motivate you to learn more.
Advantages and benefits of teaching and introduction
Expected to improve understanding of their own work
In order for OJT training instructors to ensure that the content of instruction is understood by others without misunderstanding, it is essential to be creative in the way you teach and communicate. In order to explain things in an easy-to-understand manner, you will always have to think about "when," "what," and "how" to communicate.
Through trial and error, it is also an opportunity to review one's own thinking about one's own work and to recognize errors.
Opportunity to enhance management skills.
In many cases, senior employees who have been with the company for several years are appointed as supervisors for on-the-job training, which is effective as management training. In some cases, employees are required to experience OJT training as one step toward acquiring the leadership skills required of managers.
Another major benefit is that it provides an opportunity for those who teach to accumulate teaching expertise, improve their skills, and grow.
Advantages and benefits from the company's perspective
Communication among members is expected to be activated.
Conducting on-the-job training will inevitably increase opportunities for interaction within the company and stimulate communication. Conversations will naturally occur through work instruction and feedback, and the bond between new employees and senior employees will be strengthened.
Good relationships may be fostered and trust may be built among members.
Easier to keep training costs down compared to off-JT training
OJT training does not incur the personnel costs of outside instructors because the company's own employees serve as instructors. Also, there is no need for a separate schedule from work or the cost of renting a training venue, as is the case with off-the-job training.
Another feature of on-the-job training is that it can be implemented without incurring special costs for training.
Disadvantages and cautions of OJT training
On-the-job training has both advantages and disadvantages of providing on-site instruction. The following points should also be kept in mind when introducing OJT training in your company.
Disadvantages and cautions for those being taught
The degree of effectiveness varies depending on the instructor.
The effectiveness of learning through on-the-job training tends to depend on the ability and skills of the instructor. It is important to note that depending on the level of the instructor, there is likely to be a difference in the quality of the instruction received by the trainee. Another drawback is that if the instructor and the trainee are incompatible, it is difficult for the training to produce positive results. If the training is completed with inadequate instruction, there is a risk that it will interfere with business operations.
Difficult to acquire systematic learning
The strength of OJT training is that it provides practical learning, but on the other hand, it tends to be difficult to learn systematically in the field. Off-JT training, which is conducted in the form of classroom lectures, e-learning, and other educational methods are suitable for systematic learning. Depending on the content of the learning, it may be a good idea to consider using other methods in combination rather than relying solely on OJT training.
Disadvantages and cautions for those who teach
OJT training instructors are at risk of disrupting their normal duties. The instructor is responsible for his or her own work and additionally assumes the role of instructor. It is important to note that focusing too much on OJT training in a limited amount of time leaves little time for normal work.
Lack of resources may make it difficult to carry out the work or reduce the quality of output.
Disadvantages and cautions of the company perspective
In some cases, on-the-job training can leave new employees feeling "left out" by their instructors. If this situation occurs, the HR department in charge of planning and management may be skeptical of the system's design.
Also, be wary of cases in which instructors feel that they are being "left to the field. Factors such as a lack of follow-up from the members around them and a lack of rules regarding on-the-job training are likely to be contributing factors.
Companies implementing on-the-job training need to consider how to handle support for new employees and instructors. Leaving the burden on new employees and instructors can lead to distrust of the organization.Back to Table of Contents
Key points for effective OJT training
How should we tackle OJT training to make the most of its benefits and operate with caution? Finally, we will provide some key points to realize in order to effectively implement OJT training and lead it to success.
Advance the entire workplace, not just the leadership.
When implementing on-the-job training at your company, it is important not to leave the training of new employees to the instructors. The company should be aware of the instructor's normal workload and take care not to overburden the instructor with on-the-job training.
In addition, supervisors and senior staff on site should provide support so that the instructor does not carry the burden alone. Ideally, the surrounding mid-career employees should be willing to help, offering advice on how to communicate and providing feedback on the training plan.
Combined with e-learning
One method is to combine on-the-job training with e-learning, whereby knowledge acquired systematically through e-learning can be applied to on-the-job training to increase learning efficiency. By having trainees learn through e-learning before they go out into the field, it will be easier to reduce the amount of time spent on OJT training. This is also a measure to avoid the risk of increasing the workload of the instructor.
Conduct workshops and case studies for leaders
Providing workshops and case study opportunities as support for OJT training instructors can help them care for their instructors and improve their teaching methods.
In many cases, instructors are in charge of on-the-job training with insufficient training know-how because they themselves have not experienced being trained in an appropriate manner. By providing a place for leaders to learn, it may be possible to improve the lack of leadership skills within the company.
This is also a recommended measure if you do not yet have an on-the-job training system in place in your company; in addition to the on-the-job training supervisor, the person in charge of the human resources department who plans human resource development for your company may also participate in this training.Back to Table of Contents
To design training programs that take advantage of the benefits of on-the-job training
This article explains the basics of OJT training, the benefits and cautions of its introduction, and key points for effective implementation.
OJT training is an educational method suitable for practical learning, and its strength is that it can make new employees immediately competitive. For the company, it also has the advantage of keeping training costs low. However, care must be taken in how it is implemented, as a lack of support for new employees and instructors can lead to a sense of distrust toward the company.
To cover such disadvantages of OJT training, it is effective to combine it with e-learning. Because systematic learning can be provided online, it is expected to increase the learning efficiency of OJT training. E-learning is also recommended because it helps reduce the burden on instructors.
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